1. Introducion

ninja photo

According to some documents from the Edo period
(from the 17th to the middle of the 19th century),
Ninja were able to run 16km per hour and up to 160km (100 mile) per day.

Not only Ninja, Hikyaku (delivery men) and Samurai
could also run at similar speeds and distances.

However, the tradition of these running techniques came to an end
due to the cultural interaction between Japan and European countries.

There were no running shoes or paved roads in Japan in the Edo period.

So, how did they run so fast and such long distances?

I researched several historical records that documented their outstanding abilities
and attempted to apply the descriptions of those techniques
to see how they actually ran.

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